Speech Sound Disorders: Causes, Treatment and Strategies

By Wellness Hub

Last Updated: October 14, 2023

Speech is one of the basic forms of communication. Speech helps to verbally express and exchange an individual’s thoughts, feelings, and ideas with others. While everyone learns to speak from an early age, some individuals find it difficult. They would start to speak at a later age or find it difficult to pronounce words. The difficulties that won’t let you make correct speech sounds are called speech sound disorders. For example, saying “wabbit” instead of “rabbit” or facing trouble pronouncing “th” in “this” and so on comes under these speech problems. Hence, Speech sound disorders, also known as articulation disorders or phonological disorders, are conditions that affect a person’s ability to produce speech sounds correctly. 

Speech sound disorders can impact an individual’s intelligibility, social interactions, and communication abilities. In this article, we will explore the various aspects of speech sound disorders, including their causes, types, and potential treatments.

What are Speech Sound Disorders?

Speech sound disorders refer to issues that occur during the production of speech sounds, also known as phonemes. Speech sound disorders can affect a person’s intelligibility. Their speech makes it difficult for others to understand.

Types of Speech Sound Disorders

Speech sound disorders can be of two types:

  1. Functional speech sound disorders
  2. Organic speech sound disorders.
Speech Sound Disorders

Functional speech sound disorders

Functional speech sound disorders are two types:

  1. Articulation disorders
  2. Phonological disorders
Articulation DisordersPhonological Disorders
1. Errors at the phonetic/motoric level (difficulty producing sounds)
2. 1-2 errors that are substituted or distorted, typically in a predictable way
3. More common in older students.
1. Errors at the phonemic/linguistic level (difficulty organizing sounds)
2. Groups of sounds or types of syllable structures are omitted, swapped, or simplified, which can be consistent or inconsistent
More common in younger students.

It is often difficult to clearly differentiate between articulation and phonological disorders; therefore, many researchers and clinicians prefer to use the broader term “speech sound disorder” when referring to speech errors of unknown cause.

Articulation disorders (Phonetic Disorders)

Articulation disorders refer to errors in the production of speech sounds. These speech sound issues can be identified in many ways, including

  • Substitutions (replacing one sound with another, for example, wabbit for rabbit )
  • Omissions (leaving out a sound from the word, for example, bo for boat)
  • Distortions (altering the sound quality of a word, for example, shlip for sip)
  • Additions (inserting extra sounds in the word, for example, “Ismayil” for “Smile”)

Any type of such issue can be identified as a problem with articulation.

Phonological disorders (Phonemic Disorders)

Phonological disorders refer to the linguistic aspects of speech. These disorders focus on predictable, rule-based errors. The issue is more about systematic patterns of errors that affect an individual’s speech intelligibility. Examples of such disorders can be

  1. Assimilation (Actual sound is pronounced like a neighboring sound)
  2. Cluster reduction (grouping neighboring consonants and reducing to one sound)
  3. Final consonant deletion (omitting final consonant sound in a word)
  4. Backing (replacing the sounds produced at the front of the mouth with the sounds produced at the back of the mouth)
  5. Fronting (replacing the sounds produced at the back of the mouth with the sounds produced at the front of the mouth)
  6. Initial consonant deletion (omitting the initial consonant sound of a word)

Every individual with this disorder doesn’t produce the same error. These patterns can vary from person to person. Phonological disorders are considered both speech and language disorders because the language system is affected, but they are also speech sound disorders in that the errors relate to the use of phonemes (speech sounds). This makes it different from specific language impairments, which are primarily disorders of morphology (word structure), syntax (grammar), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (usage) of language rather than the sound system.

Organic speech sound disorders

Organic speech sound disorders include those resulting from issues relating to various areas. They can be

  • Motor/Neurological disorders (relating to execution, such as Dysarthria, or planning, such as Apraxia) Certain neurological conditions, such as apraxia of speech or dysarthria, can impact the motor control and coordination necessary for precise speech sound production.
  • The muscles involved in speech need to move in a coordinated manner in order to produce Speech Sounds. These movements are controlled by the brain and are also dependent upon speech muscle strength.
    • In Apraxia, the speech muscles are normal and of normal strength, but the brain signals that control movements of these muscles during speech become abnormal.
    • In Dysarthria, the brain signals that control the movement of speech muscles during speech are normal, but speech muscles are weak and not able to move.
  • Structural disorders (relating to issues of cleft palate or other orofacial abnormalities or structural deficits due to trauma or surgery) Some individuals may have physical abnormalities in their oral structures, such as cleft palate or tongue-tie, which can affect speech sound production.
  • Sensory/Perceptual disorders (such as Hearing impairment) Problems in hearing and auditory processing can make it challenging to perceive and produce speech sounds accurately.
Motor/Neurological ConditionChildhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS): Inability to utilize motor planning to perform movements necessary for speech during a child’s language-learning process, potentially due to genetics. Similar in characteristics and treatments to AOS.
Dysarthria: Motor speech disorder characterized by difficulty articulating sounds due to muscle weakness in the mouth, face, and respiratory system. It can be congenital or acquired.
Structural DeficitsOrofacial Anomalies: Structural anomalies like cleft lip or palate can affect speech sound articulation by impacting the movement and coordination of articulators.
Dental Abnormalities: Issues like malocclusions or missing teeth can affect the positioning of the tongue, lips, and teeth, impacting specific speech sounds like /s/ and /z/.
Anatomical Variations: Variations in the oral cavity, palate, or pharynx can impact the resonance and articulation of speech sounds, affecting speech quality and clarity.
Anatomical Abnormalities: Structures like enlarged tonsils or adenoids can obstruct airflow and lead to abnormal speech sound production.
Sensory Perceptual DeficitsHearing Loss/Auditory Processing Disorders: Can cause difficulties in perceiving and discriminating speech sounds accurately, impacting sound production.

Causes of Speech Sound Disorders

Speech sound disorders can have various causes, and they may result from a combination of factors. Speech sound disorders can also result from environmental influences, like exposure to non-standard dialects or a lack of speech modeling in the home. When people with speech issues are around, it can be understood that children learn to speak in the same way.

Developmental factors

Many children go through a phase of speech sound errors as they learn to speak, but some continue to struggle with the correct production of sounds longer than expected. These may be categorized as developmental speech sound disorders.

Structural or physiological factors

Physical abnormalities, such as cleft palate or missing teeth, can affect the production of speech. These again refer to developmental factors affecting speech production.

Hearing impairments

Hearing loss can impact an individual’s ability to hear and produce speech sounds correctly, especially if the hearing loss occurs during critical periods of language development.

Neurological conditions

Certain neurological conditions, such as apraxia of speech or dysarthria, can lead to speech sound disorders. Apraxia involves difficulty planning and coordinating the movements needed for speech, while dysarthria results from weakness or paralysis of the speech muscles.

Treatment and Therapies

Treatment for speech sound disorders typically involves a speech-language pathologist providing speech therapy. The SLP assesses the individual’s speech patterns, identifies specific sound errors or patterns, and develops a tailored treatment plan. Therapy may involve exercises to improve articulation, practice with specific speech sounds, and strategies to correct phonological patterns.

Early intervention is crucial for children with speech sound disorders, as addressing the issue during developmental years can lead to better outcomes. For adults with acquired speech sound disorders due to injury or illness, rehabilitation by an SLP can also be effective in improving speech intelligibility and communication abilities.

Treatment Strategies

Treatment Strategies for speech sound order

The treatment of speech sound disorders typically involves the expertise of a speech-language pathologist (SLP). The specific therapy approach depends on the individual’s age, the severity of the disorder, and the underlying causes. 

The common treatment strategies include:

Articulation Therapy

During articulation therapy, a speech therapist focuses on teaching the correct placement and movement of the articulators (tongue, lips, etc.) This helps to produce specific speech sounds as accurately as possible.

Phonological Therapy

During phonological therapy, specific patterns of errors are addressed. An individual is taught the rules and patterns of their language’s sound system.

Auditory Discrimination Training

This training involves hearing and distinguishing between different speech sounds correctly. Discriminating between the actual speech sound and the pronounced sound will help an individual to learn better.

Motor Speech Therapy

During motor speech therapy, an individual is trained to gain control over motor functions of speech. The neurological conditions affecting speech are addressed during motor speech therapy.

Family Involvement:

In many cases, involving the family in therapy can help reinforce progress and encourage consistent practice at home.

Though speech sound disorders impact a person’s ability to communicate effectively, early intervention strategies help significantly improve speech. Early intervention helps achieve the best outcomes, making it important to promptly address any concerns about speech sound disorders.


speech sound disorders, encompassing both functional and organic types, significantly affect an individual’s ability to communicate clearly. Early detection and intervention by a qualified speech-language pathologist are crucial to effectively managing these disorders, improving speech clarity, and enhancing overall communication skills. Family involvement and tailored speech therapy are vital components of successful treatment, ensuring sustainable progress. Addressing speech sound disorders promptly can lead to improved social interactions and a better quality of life for those affected. Remember, effective communication is a key part of personal and social development, making the treatment of speech sound disorders an important endeavor.

Frequently Asked Question

1. What are speech sound disorders?

Speech sound disorders are conditions that impair an individual’s ability to produce speech sounds correctly, affecting their intelligibility and communication abilities. These disorders can be either functional or organic in nature.

2. What are the two main types of speech sound disorders?

The two main types of speech sound disorders are functional speech sound disorders, which include articulation disorders and phonological disorders, and organic speech sound disorders, which stem from neurological, structural, or sensory issues.

3. What is the difference between articulation disorders and phonological disorders?

Articulation disorders involve errors at the phonetic/motoric level such as difficulty producing specific sounds, while phonological disorders involve errors at the phonemic/linguistic level affecting systematic patterns of speech sounds.

4. Can speech sound disorders affect both children and adults?

Yes, speech sound disorders can affect both children and adults, although the causes and treatment approaches may differ based on the individual’s age and the underlying causes of the disorder.5.

5. What causes speech sound disorders?

Causes of speech sound disorders include developmental factors, neurological conditions, structural or physiological abnormalities, hearing impairments, and environmental influences such as exposure to non-standard dialects.

6. How are speech sound disorders diagnosed?

Speech sound disorders are typically diagnosed by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) who assesses the individual’s speech patterns, identifies specific sound errors, and determines the nature of the disorder.

7. What treatments are available for speech sound disorders?

Treatment generally involves speech therapy tailored to the individual’s needs, including articulation therapy, phonological therapy, auditory discrimination training, and motor speech therapy, depending on the type and severity of the disorder.

8. What role does early intervention play in the treatment of speech sound disorders?

Early intervention is crucial as it can significantly improve outcomes, especially in children. Addressing speech sound disorders during developmental years can lead to more effective communication skills later in life.

9. Can hearing impairment cause speech sound disorders?

Yes, hearing impairments can lead to speech sound disorders as they affect the ability to hear and thus produce speech sounds accurately. Addressing hearing issues is often a part of the treatment for speech sound disorders.

10. Why is family involvement important in treating speech sound disorders?

Involving the family in therapy can reinforce progress and encourage consistent practice at home, which is vital for the effective treatment of speech sound disorders.

About the Author:

Rajini Darugupally

M.Sc., Speech-Language Pathologist (9+ years of experience)

Rajini is a passionate and dedicated Speech-Language Pathologist with over 9+ years of experience, specializing in both developmental speech and language disorders in children and rehabilitation in adults. Driven by a desire to empower each individual to find their voice, Rajini brings a wealth of experience and a warm, genuine approach to therapy.

Currently, at Wellness Hub, she thrives in a team environment that values innovation, compassion, and achieving results for their clients.

Connect with Rajini to learn more about how she can help you or your loved one find their voice.

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